Boris Johnson has heralded a 'new beginning in our country's history' after his Brexit trade deal was signed into law, setting the stage for a smooth
The Prime Minister thanked MPs and peers for rushing the Bill through Parliament in just one day so it could take effect at exactly 11pm this evening when the UK’s transition period ends.
At 12.25am, Commons Speaker Sir Lindsay Hoyle told MPs that the EU (Future Relationship) Act 2020, had been granted royal assent by the Queen.
It enshrines in legislation the trade agreement finally negotiated between London and Brussels last week following more than four years of wrangling since the referendum.
Shortly before Her Majesty gave the Act her seal of approval, a bullish Mr Johnson marked out a new chapter for Britain, which first joined the bloc in 1973.
He said in a statement: ‘I want to thank my fellow MPs and peers for passing this historic Bill and would like to express my gratitude to all of the staff here in Parliament and across Government who have made today possible.
‘The destiny of this great country now resides firmly in our hands.
‘We take on this duty with a sense of purpose and with the interests of the British public at the heart of everything we do.
’11pm on December 31 marks a new beginning in our country’s history and a new relationship with the EU as their biggest ally. This moment is finally upon us and now is the time to seize it.’
Boris Johnson formally signed his Brexit trade deal with the EU yesterday as he brought the curtain down on four years of wrangling over the UK’s split from Brussels
A rare behind-the-scenes photograph of the Prime Minister behind the Speaker’s chair heading back to the Commons chamber after voting on the long-awaited Brexit deal
Royal assent enshrines in legislation the trade agreement (one of the documents signed by PM yesterday) finally negotiated between London and Brussels last week following more than four years of wrangling since the referendum
The Bill easily sailed through both chambers yesterday – MPs voted by 521 to 73 at third reading, while peers gave it an unopposed third reading late on Wednesday night.
Sir Keir Starmer branded it a ‘thin deal’ but whipped Labour MPs to vote with the Government, acknowledging it was the only alternative to a No Deal exit.
However in his New Year’s message last night he struck an optimistic tone and, although making no direct reference to Brexit, said ‘the country’s best years are still to come’ as the UK forges a ‘new path’ in the world.
MPs were still in the Commons chamber in the early hours of this morning when Sir Lindsay informed the House of the Queen’s royal assent.
Prompting cheers from Conservative MPs, he said: ‘I have to notify the House, in accordance with the Royal Assent Act 1967, that Her Majesty signified her royal assent to the following Act: European Union (Future Relationship Act) 2020.’
The SNP’s Westminster leader Ian Blackford quickly branded the Act an ‘act of constitutional vandalism’ because the devolved parliaments have refused to signal their approval.
Forty-four Scottish Nationalists had voted against the deal and were joined in the ‘No’ lobby by 11 Lib Dems and 8 DUP MPs.
Brexiteers were by contrast in jubiliant mood when the monarch gave her royal assent. Tory MP Craig Mackinlay tweeted: ‘Good to be in the House of Commons chamber at 00.30 to hear this welcome news from Her Majesty. Brexit delivered.’
Fellow Conservative backbencher Adam Afriyie declared that ‘we are now, in law, a sovereign, independent, self-governing United Kingdom once again.’
Cabinet minister Penny Mourdant said: ‘The result of the 2016 referendum has been delivered. Now we must deliver on the hope and ambition that accompanied the vote. A new day, a new year and a new chapter for the United Kingdom.’
But celebrations of the kind seen last January when the UK officially ceased to be an EU member state – a huge rally in Parliament Square – will be muted tonight because of the coronavirus pandemic which has largely eclipsed Brexit this year.
Commons Speaker Sir Lindsay Hoyle told MPs that the EU (Future Relationship) Act 2020, had been granted royal assent by the Queen
MPs in the House of Commons voted in favour of the hard fought 1,200 page trade deal yesterday by 521 votes to 73, a majority of 448
The Brexit trade agreement touched down at London City airport on an RAF flight yesterday afternoon after being signed by EU commission president Ursula von der Leyen
Sir Keir Starmer suffers massive Labour rebellion after telling his MPs they had to vote for PM’s deal
Sir Keir Starmer suffered a massive Labour rebellion as dozens of his MPs defied his instruction to vote for Boris Johnson’s Brexit trade deal with the EU.
The Labour leader had told Labour MPs they had to back the accord on the grounds that it was the only alternative to a damaging no deal split from Brussels.
But some 36 Labour MPs abstained during the crunch vote as two junior frontbenchers quit their roles after defying Sir Keir.
Helen Hayes, a shadow Cabinet Office minister, said she could not vote for the ‘damaging’ accord and offered her resignation while Tonia Antoniazzi, part of the shadow work and pensions team, did the same.
Former shadow home secretary Diane Abbott and former international trade secretary Barry Gardiner were among the 36 Labour MPs who abstained.
Only one Labour MP voted against the deal, Bell Ribeiro-Addy, while former Labour leader and now independent MP Jeremy Corbyn also abstained.
Some 162 Labour MPs voted for Mr Johnson’s trade pact along with 359 Tories as it was agreed by 521 votes to 73, a majority of 448.
In a tough message to would-be mutineers this morning, Sir Keir had said: ‘Those that vote ”no” are voting for No Deal.’
Some 44 SNP MPs, 11 Lib Dems and 8 DUP MPs were among those to have voted against the deal.
At 11pm UK time – midnight in Brussels – the transition period will end, meaning Britain will be outside the Single Market and free from following the EU’s rules.
Under the agreement struck between the UK’s chief negotiatior Lord David Frost and the European Commission’s Michel Barnier, Britain will continue to trade goods with the EU with zero tariffs or quotas.
The full text of the agreement is set out in a 1,200-page trade pact which was signed by Ursula von der Leyen, the President of the European Commission, in Brussels yesterday morning before being flown to London on an RAF jet.
Mr Johnson subsequently put his signature to the hard in copy in Downing Street before opening the Commons debate on his deal, urging an end to the ‘rancour and recrimination’ that have soured political life in recent years.
He said decades of tensions with the EU had been ‘resolved’ so Britain can be its closest friend, a free-trading power, and a ‘liberal, outward-looking force for good’. He suggested far from trade being hit by leaving the single market and customs union it should mean ‘even more’ business being done.
‘Having taken back control of our money, our borders, our laws and our waters by leaving the European Union on January 31, we now seize this moment to forge a fantastic new relationship with our European neighbours based on free trade and friendly co-operation,’ Mr Johnson said.
‘At the heart of this Bill is one of the biggest free trade agreements in the world.’
A rare photo of the PM emerging from the division lobby was captured, showing him wearing a mask behind the Speaker’s chair before going back into the Commons chamber to hear the result.
The passage of the deal through the Commons was seen as a formality thanks to the PM’s 80-seat majority and the fact Sir Keir told Labour MPs they had to vote for it.
However, the Labour leader suffered a major rebellion as 36 Labour MPs, including former shadow Cabinet ministers Diane Abbott and Barry Gardiner, defied their leader’s instruction and chose to abstain.
Only one Labour MP voted against the deal, Bell Ribeiro-Addy, while former Labour leader and now independent MP Jeremy Corbyn abstained. Some 162 Labour MPs voted for the deal along with 359 Tories.
Two junior members of the Labour frontbench, Helen Hayes and Tonia Antoniazzi, quit their roles after they abstained.
In a tough message to would-be mutineers, Sir Keir had said: ‘Those that vote ”no” are voting for No Deal.’
Boris Johnson hailed a ‘new chapter’ for the UK after Brexit today as his trade deal is crashed through Parliament
A smiling EU commission chief Ursula von der Leyen (left) and EU council president Charles Michel signed the pact in Brussels
Ms von der Leyen and Mr Michel signed the trade deal on a provisional basis, with the European Parliament due to give approval next year
Moment PM enters Commons chamber to watch his Brexit trade deal win approval
This is the moment Boris Johnson marched into the House of Commons chamber to watch his historic Brexit trade deal win approval from MPs.
The rare behind-the-scenes photo shows the PM emerging from the division lobbies, where MPs vote with their feet, behind the Speaker’s chair.
The Prime Minister crashed through all five stages of the 80-page EU (Future Relationship) Bill in one day to meet the December 31 11pm deadline when the UK leaves the transition period.
Most MPs took part in the day of debates virtually, although a few headed to Westminster to make contributions from the Commons green benches.
Sanitising stations and floor markings have been erected on the parliamentary estate.
Mr Johnson opened the debate this morning before the Speaker heard from backbenchers, including ex-PM Theresa May.
With Labour backing the deal, the bill sailed through the Commons by 521 to 73, a majority of 448.
Ex-PM Theresa May had delivered a stinging attack saying her agreement with the EU – repeatedly rejected by the House in 2019 before she was evicted from No10 – had been ‘better’ as she berated Sir Keir for failing to support it.
The agreement’s passage was assured with Tory Eurosceptics – who lavished praise on Mr Johnson, saying Churchill and Thatcher would be ‘proud’ – fully on board.
Veteran Sir Bill Cash said: ‘Like Alexander the Great, Boris has cut the Gordian Knot.’
Mark Francois, one of the self-styled Spartans who held out against Theresa May’s Brexit withdrawal agreement, said they could now ‘lower our spears’.
Urging MPs to back the accord struck on Christmas Eve, Mr Johnson claimed it resolves ‘the old and vexed question of Britain’s political relations with Europe, which bedevilled our post-war history’.
The PM said: ‘We have done this in less than a year, in the teeth of a pandemic, and we have pressed ahead with this task, resisting all calls for delay, precisely because creating certainty about our future provides the best chance of beating Covid and bouncing back even more strongly next year.’
Mr Johnson went on: ‘We will now open a new chapter in our national story, striking free trade deals around the world, adding to the agreements with 63 countries we have already achieved, and reasserting Global Britain as a liberal, outward-looking force for good.
‘Those of us who campaigned for Britain to leave the EU never sought a rupture with our closest neighbours.
‘We would never wish to rupture ourselves from fellow democracies beneath whose soil lie British war graves in tranquil cemeteries, often tended by local schoolchildren, testament to our shared struggle for freedom and everything we cherish in common.
‘What we sought was not a rupture but a resolution, a resolution of the old and vexed question of Britain’s political relations with Europe, which bedevilled our post-War history.’
Despite warnings that there will be more friction in trade due to breaking free from EU rules, Mr Johnson said the deal ‘if anything should allow companies to do even more business with our European friends, safeguarding millions of jobs and livelihoods in UK and across the continent’.
‘In less than 48 hours, we will leave the EU single market and the customs union, as we promised,’ he said.
Mr Johnson said for the first time since 1973 the UK would be an independent coastal nation, stressing that in five and a half years’ time after another transition Britain will have full control of its waters. ‘Of course we would have liked to have done this more quickly,’ he admitted.
Sir Keir urged his benches to support the historic trade pact, saying the argument is ‘over’ and the issue must not dominate the next general election.
From work to pensions, passports and pets, what Britain’s new Brexit deal with the EU means for you
By John Stevens, deputy political editor for the Daily Mail
UK citizens no longer have an automatic right to live and work in the EU. The ability to do so depends on each country’s immigration rules. Professional qualifications may no longer be recognised. Citizens of the UK and Ireland can continue to live, work and move freely between the two countries.
Existing EU burgundy passports remain valid but UK travellers will not be able to use fast track e-gates at EU airports or Eurostar. Britons visiting most EU countries and Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, should have at least six months left on their passport when travelling. It should also be less than ten years old on the day of travel.
Visits to EU countries will be limited to no more than 90 days in any 180. From January 2022, Britons will have to pay a visa-waiver for EU travel – approximately £6 per head. These will last for three years.
There will be a tax-free limit of £390 on goods brought back from the EU. For drink and cigarettes, the limits are 42 litres of beer; 18 litres of wine; nine litres of sparkling wine; four litres of spirits; and 200 cigarettes.
Most can continue to drive in the EU without the need to get an International Driving Permit. Those with an older paper licence may need one. Drivers taking their own car to the continent will need a ‘green card’ from their insurer. There may be a fee.
The EHIC – European Health Insurance Card – scheme is to end although cards remain valid until their expiry dates. The Government says it will bring in a similar global health insurance card.
UK will no longer participate in the Erasmus scheme, which allows students to study at European institutions for a year during their degree. A global ‘Turing Scheme’ will replace it from September 2021.
The EU pet passport scheme is ending and owners will need to get an animal health certificate instead. The cost is likely to be around £100, with a new one for each trip.
Sending goods to the EU will require a customs declaration, available from the Post Office. Britons receiving goods from the EU may have to pay duty, VAT and handling fees.
Retiring to the EU
A visa and proof of financial independence will now be needed. The UK state pension will still be paid.
Its citizens may escape some rules as the province is considered part of the European Union in certain circumstances.
RICHARD KAY: NOW will they stop wailing? They were the insufferable refuseniks horrified by a democratic referendum (because they lost) who battled to thwart it. Now, before we sail into a brave new tomorrow, a fond salute to Brexit’s bitter losers
Tonight Britain will leave the European Union for good, as the demands of the 2016 referendum are finally met.
Tony Blair, the former Prime Minister, holding a sign saying I Voted Remain
Ever since that historic result, there have been four and a half years of relentlessly bitter rancour between opposing sides, and in the process reputations were made and lost.
So, more than 1,600 days after the vote, who are the real winners and, significantly, biggest losers of the Brexit deal?
TONY BLAIR, PETER MANDELSON & ALASTAIR CAMPBELL: Labour’s three unwise men and Remainer Ultras who thought they could take support for their beloved Europe for granted without realising how much they were hated by both Tory and Labour voters.
KATYA ADLER: The Beeb’s multi-lingual Europe Editor whose doom-laden reports for the BBC, that’s the Brussels Broadcasting Corporation, will not be missed.
EMMANUEL MACRON: France’s pint-sized president never missed an opportunity to mock Britain’s post-Brexit hopes.
SIR KEIR STARMER: Flip-flopping and endless U-turns have seen the Labour leader jeered for having more positions on Brexit than the Kama Sutra.
THERESA MAY: Forever haunted by her ‘Brexit means Brexit’ soundbite, the former PM was graceful enough to vote for her successor’s deal — but not without lambasting it as inferior to her (rejected) one.
Members of Parliament gather near the Commons Speaker John Bercow, right
DAVID CAMERON: Might have gone down in history for agreeing to the EU referendum but then petulantly walked away when his ‘side’ lost and is now reduced to little more than a footnote.
JAMES O’BRIEN: The shrill LBC presenter with a serious case of Brexit derangement syndrome who did as much as anyone to paint EU Leavers as ignorant and thick.
NICOLA STURGEON: Scotland’s First Minister would have shrieked betrayal whatever happened. But her case for independence gets harder: why demand an end to rule from London only to replace it by subservience to Brussels?
IAN BLACKFORD: The SNP’s gloomster-in-chief who single-handedly lives up to PG Wodehouse’s biting aphorism that ‘it is never difficult to distinguish between a Scotsman with a grievance and a ray of sunshine’.
Steve Coogan addresses anti-Brexit campaigners in Parliament Square, London, March 2019
TWITTER: Its Remainiac user base has finally come to terms with the fact that their social media feed is not the same thing as the real world.
RESTAURATEURS of Strasbourg & Brussels: They are mourning the loss of some of the hungriest — and thirstiest — Eurocrats on their gravy train.
FINANCIAL TIMES, THE ECONOMIST & GUARDIAN: House publications of the metropolitan chattering classes all predicted doom and destruction if we voted Brexit and all showed how far removed and insulated they are from everyday life.
HUGH GRANT, STEVE COOGAN, BENEDICT CUMBERBATCH: The luvvies came out for Remain but couldn’t win over a population sick to death of being told how to vote by rich actors who think they’re as clever as the lines they recite.
JOHN HANNAH: The Four Weddings And A Funeral actor deserves special mention for his insults to ‘peasants and pensioners’ and other ‘idiots and racists’ who backed Brexit. Adding for good measure: ‘I hope you choke on your crap cheaps**t meat and extortionate U.S. drugs.’
Chuka Umunna and Hugh Grant (centre) with campaign volunteers before canvassing to encourage people to vote for Liberal Democrat Umunna as the Remain candidate. London December 2019
LADY HALE: Spider brooch-wearing Supreme Court judge who ruled the Government acted unlawfully by proroguing Parliament last year only to pave the way for Boris’s thumping election victory in December 2019.
GINA MILLER: Anti-Brexit activist who twice took the Government to court (see above) and whose tactical voting websites during last year’s election failed to persuade supporters to defeat the Tories and stop Brexit.
Gina Miller arrives at High Court for the decision on Brexit legal battle, March 2016
DOMINIC GRIEVE & ANNA SOUBRY: Tory turncoats who thought they were entitled to overturn the democratic wish of the British people.
JOHN BERCOW: Unlamented ex-Speaker, who used his high office to try to derail Brexit, and who remains the first Speaker in living memory not to receive a peerage.
JOHN MAJOR & LORD HESELTINE: EU has-beens from whom a prolonged period of silence is overdue. Analogue figures in a digital age.
LORD ADONIS: Diehard Remainer who, despite losing the argument, never concedes. Now says the best policy for the UK is to ‘rejoin’ the EU. Oh, please!
LORD KERSLAKE: The former head of the Civil Service, a cross-bench peer who took up an advisory role to former Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn, stoked the anti-Brexit rhetoric with claims that officials were planning for ‘riots in the street’ in the event of no deal. It earned him a rebuke for exaggeration from Radio 4’s John Humphrys.
JO SWINSON: Who she? The former Lib Dem leader who promised her party would overturn Brexit only for her to be turned out of Parliament by contemptuous voters.
SIR ED DAVEY: Who he? Current Lib Dem leader (keep up) who followed narrow political point-scoring by voting against the EU trade bill yesterday.
BOB GELDOF: The self-obsessed former pop star who took to the Thames with metropolitan chums in a pleasure boat to sneer and give an expletive-loaded salute to fishermen at a Brexit protest outside Parliament. A low moment in a very dirty war.
A boat carrying supporters for the Remain in the EU campaign including Singer, Bob Geldof (centre), on the River Thames, London, June 2016
DAME HILARY MANTEL: Historical novelist who labelled Brexit a ‘unique national folly’ and described Britain’s retreat into insularity as ‘really ugly’.
PHILIP PULLMAN: The His Dark Materials author plumbed absurd depths with his claim that the Government ‘should be arraigned on conspiracy to murder charges’ if it found Brexit negotiations had hindered the procurement of PPE to fight the coronavirus.
DELIA SMITH: The cookery writer and Norwich FC owner who admitted that she had never accepted the referendum result and helped fund a fleet of coaches to transport ‘people’s vote’ protesters to London.
SIR RICHARD BRANSON: From claims that a hard Brexit would be more damaging than World War II to dire warnings about the collapse of the Pound, the billionaire businessman kept up a never-ending stream of Project Fear scare stories about Britain’s post EU future.
MICHEL BARNIER: For such an outwardly smooth and suave figure, Barnier was increasingly rattled as the talks dragged on. Convinced by the purity of the EU position, he was eventually sidelined by Ursula von der Leyen, the pragmatic president of the European Commission.
Scotland’s First Minister Nicola Sturgeon arrives to vote in the EU referendum, at Broomhouse Community Hall in Glasgow, Scotland on June 23, 2016
DONALD TUSK: Failed to change his tune even after standing down as European Council president, declaring that Brexit was ‘one of the most spectacular mistakes’ in the history of the EU.
JEAN-CLAUDE JUNCKER: Former EU Commissioner and arch-federalist, who had to deny claims he had a drink problem, may have unwittingly come up with the best description on the interminable Brexit wrangling: ‘A waste of time and energy.’
GUY VERHOFSTADT: The one-time chairman of the Brexit steering group in the European Parliament could not resist sticking his three-penn’orth into the agreement by calling the end of Britain’s involvement in the EU’s Erasmus scheme for students ‘tragic and spiteful’.
…and the ones who will still be whooping
LORD BOTHAM: The England cricketing legend urged Britain to ‘stand proud’ by voting to leave, accusing the EU of ‘greed and corruption’. The bulldog-spirited sportsman was raised to the peerage by a grateful Boris Johnson.
SIR GEOFFREY BOYCOTT: Botham’s fellow cricketer’s defence of Brexit was hailed by TV presenter Piers Morgan as one of the ‘greatest mission’ statements since the days of Churchill.
SIR MICHAEL CAINE: The veteran Hollywood star was unequivocal: ‘You cannot be dictated to by thousands of faceless civil servants [in Brussels].’
NIGEL FARAGE: There would have been no Brexit without him. A peerage or knighthood surely beckons.
LORD (Daniel) HANNAN: The highly intelligent former MEP who has been banging on about the evils of Europe for longer even than Farage and campaigned for voters to ‘please sack me’ by voting Leave.
LAST NIGHT OF THE PROMS: No more waving of EU flags instead of the Union Flag.
NUMBER PLATE MAKERS: At last we can see the back of the deeply infuriating Euro flag on registration plates. And motorists can proudly apply a GB sticker when driving in the EU.
LORD FROST: When the dust has settled much of the success of our trade deal will be thanks to UK’s chief EU negotiator David Frost. Unlike his predecessor Olly Robbins, an ardent Europhile, Frosty, a career diplomat, was a hardline Eurosceptic.
BORIS JOHNSON: He promised to get Brexit done and now he has. His personal intervention drove the deal over the line and now he can focus on other matters: defeating Covid, saving the union with Scotland and marrying fiancee Carrie.
ALICE GRANT: Tartan mini-skirt-wearing Alice, and her sister Beatrice, added glamour and youth to the Brexit cause. The privately-educated granddaughter of a former Bank of Scotland governor, declares: ‘Brexit was never about big money markets or economics. It was about self-determination, love for our nation and real change for our forgotten communities.’
LIZ HURLEY: In 2016 hers were the only genuine vital statistics in the referendum campaign. Her endorsement for Brexit may not have clinched the result, but that picture of her wearing nothing but stilettos and a Union Flag cushion put Remain’s gloomy luvvies with their hatred of a self-sufficient Britain in the shade.
PASSPORT MAKERS: In production (in Poland) since March, demand for the new blue British passport will soar.
DEMOCRACY: The people spoke at the 2016 referendum and the 2019 election — and today they’ve finally got what they voted for.
How did YOUR MP vote?
MPs voted by 521 to 73 – majority 448 – to approve legislation to ratify Boris Johnson’s trade deal with the EU.
But how did MPs vote at third reading?
359 Conservative MPs: Nigel Adams (Selby and Ainsty), Bim Afolami (Hitchin and Harpenden), Adam Afriyie (Windsor), Imran Ahmad Khan (Wakefield), Nickie Aiken (Cities of London and Westminster), Peter Aldous (Waveney), Lucy Allan (Telford), David Amess (Southend West), Lee Anderson (Ashfield), Stuart Anderson (Wolverhampton South West), Stuart Andrew (Pudsey), Caroline Ansell (Eastbourne), Edward Argar (Charnwood), Sarah Atherton (Wrexham), Victoria Atkins (Louth and Horncastle), Gareth Bacon (Orpington), Richard Bacon (South Norfolk), Kemi Badenoch (Saffron Walden), Shaun Bailey (West Bromwich West), Siobhan Baillie (Stroud), Duncan Baker (North Norfolk), Steve Baker (Wycombe), Harriett Baldwin (West Worcestershire), Steve Barclay (North East Cambridgeshire), John Baron (Basildon and Billericay), Simon Baynes (Clwyd South), Aaron Bell (Newcastle-under-Lyme), Scott Benton (Blackpool South), Paul Beresford (Mole Valley), Jake Berry (Rossendale and Darwen), Saqib Bhatti (Meriden), Bob Blackman (Harrow East), Crispin Blunt (Reigate), Peter Bone (Wellingborough), Peter Bottomley (Worthing West), Andrew Bowie (West Aberdeenshire and Kincardine), Ben Bradley (Mansfield), Karen Bradley (Staffordshire Moorlands), Graham Brady (Altrincham and Sale West), Suella Braverman (Fareham), Jack Brereton (Stoke-on-Trent South), Andrew Bridgen (North West Leicestershire), Steve Brine (Winchester), Paul Bristow (Peterborough), Sara Britcliffe (Hyndburn), James Brokenshire (Old Bexley and Sidcup), Anthony Browne (South Cambridgeshire), Fiona Bruce (Congleton), Felicity Buchan (Kensington), Robert Buckland (South Swindon), Alex Burghart (Brentwood and Ongar), Conor Burns (Bournemouth West), Rob Butler (Aylesbury), Alun Cairns (Vale of Glamorgan), Andy Carter (Warrington South), James Cartlidge (South Suffolk), William Cash (Stone), Miriam Cates (Penistone and Stocksbridge), Maria Caulfield (Lewes), Alex Chalk (Cheltenham), Rehman Chishti (Gillingham and Rainham), Christopher Chope (Christchurch), Jo Churchill (Bury St Edmunds), Greg Clark (Tunbridge Wells), Simon Clarke (Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland), Theo Clarke (Stafford), Brendan Clarke-Smith (Bassetlaw), Chris Clarkson (Heywood and Middleton), James Cleverly (Braintree), Geoffrey Clifton-Brown (The Cotswolds), Therese Coffey (Suffolk Coastal), Elliot Colburn (Carshalton and Wallington), Damian Collins (Folkestone and Hythe), Alberto Costa (South Leicestershire), Robert Courts (Witney), Claire Coutinho (East Surrey), Geoffrey Cox (Torridge and West Devon), Stephen Crabb (Preseli Pembrokeshire), Virginia Crosbie (Ynys Mon), Tracey Crouch (Chatham and Aylesford), James Daly (Bury North), David T C Davies (Monmouth), James Davies (Vale of Clwyd), Gareth Davies (Grantham and Stamford), Mims Davies (Mid Sussex), Philip Davies (Shipley), David Davis (Haltemprice and Howden), Dehenna Davison (Bishop Auckland), Caroline Dinenage (Gosport), Sarah Dines (Derbyshire Dales), Jonathan Djanogly (Huntingdon), Leo Docherty (Aldershot), Michelle Donelan (Chippenham), Nadine Dorries (Mid Bedfordshire), Steve Double (St Austell and Newquay), Oliver Dowden (Hertsmere), Jackie Doyle-Price (Thurrock), Richard Drax (South Dorset), Flick Drummond (Meon Valley), James Duddridge (Rochford and Southend East), David Duguid (Banff and Buchan), Iain Duncan Smith (Chingford and Woodford Green), Philip Dunne (Ludlow), Mark Eastwood (Dewsbury), Ruth Edwards (Rushcliffe), Michael Ellis (Northampton North), Tobias Ellwood (Bournemouth East), Natalie Elphicke (Dover), George Eustice (Camborne and Redruth), Luke Evans (Bosworth), David Evennett (Bexleyheath and Crayford), Ben Everitt (Milton Keynes North), Michael Fabricant (Lichfield), Laura Farris (Newbury), Simon Fell (Barrow and Furness), Katherine Fletcher (South Ribble), Mark Fletcher (Bolsover), Nick Fletcher (Don Valley), Vicky Ford (Chelmsford), Kevin Foster (Torbay), Liam Fox (North Somerset), Mark Francois (Rayleigh and Wickford), Lucy Frazer (South East Cambridgeshire), George Freeman (Mid Norfolk), Mike Freer (Finchley and Golders Green), Richard Fuller (North East Bedfordshire), Marcus Fysh (Yeovil), Roger Gale (North Thanet), Mark Garnier (Wyre Forest), Nusrat Ghani (Wealden), Nick Gibb (Bognor Regis and Littlehampton), Peter Gibson (Darlington), Jo Gideon (Stoke-on-Trent Central), Cheryl Gillan (Chesham and Amersham), John Glen (Salisbury), Robert Goodwill (Scarborough and Whitby), Michael Gove (Surrey Heath), Richard Graham (Gloucester), Helen Grant (Maidstone and The Weald), James Gray (North Wiltshire), Chris Grayling (Epsom and Ewell), Chris Green (Bolton West), Damian Green (Ashford), Andrew Griffith (Arundel and South Downs), Kate Griffiths (Burton), James Grundy (Leigh), Jonathan Gullis (Stoke-on-Trent North), Robert Halfon (Harlow), Luke Hall (Thornbury and Yate), Stephen Hammond (Wimbledon), Matt Hancock (West Suffolk), Greg Hands (Chelsea and Fulham), Mark Harper (Forest of Dean), Rebecca Harris (Castle Point), Trudy Harrison (Copeland), Sally-Ann Hart (Hastings and Rye), Simon Hart (Carmarthen West and South Pembrokeshire), John Hayes (South Holland and The Deepings), Oliver Heald (North East Hertfordshire), James Heappey (Wells), Chris Heaton-Harris (Daventry), Gordon Henderson (Sittingbourne and Sheppey), Darren Henry (Broxtowe), Antony Higginbotham (Burnley), Damian Hinds (East Hampshire), Simon Hoare (North Dorset), Richard Holden (North West Durham), Kevin Hollinrake (Thirsk and Malton), Philip Hollobone (Kettering), Adam Holloway (Gravesham), Paul Holmes (Eastleigh), John Howell (Henley), Paul Howell (Sedgefield), Nigel Huddleston (Mid Worcestershire), Neil Hudson (Penrith and The Border), Eddie Hughes (Walsall North), Jane Hunt (Loughborough), Jeremy Hunt (South West Surrey), Tom Hunt (Ipswich), Alister Jack (Dumfries and Galloway), Sajid Javid (Bromsgrove), Ranil Jayawardena (North East Hampshire), Bernard Jenkin (Harwich and North Essex), Mark Jenkinson (Workington), Andrea Jenkyns (Morley and Outwood), Robert Jenrick (Newark), Boris Johnson (Uxbridge and South Ruislip), Caroline Johnson (Sleaford and North Hykeham), Gareth Johnson (Dartford), David Johnston (Wantage), Andrew Jones (Harrogate and Knaresborough), Fay Jones (Brecon and Radnorshire), David Jones (Clwyd West), Marcus Jones (Nuneaton), Simon Jupp (East Devon), Daniel Kawczynski (Shrewsbury and Atcham), Alicia Kearns (Rutland and Melton), Gillian Keegan (Chichester), Julian Knight (Solihull), Greg Knight (East Yorkshire), Danny Kruger (Devizes), Kwasi Kwarteng (Spelthorne), John Lamont (Berwickshire, Roxburgh and Selkirk), Robert Largan (High Peak), Pauline Latham (Mid Derbyshire), Andrea Leadsom (South Northamptonshire), Edward Leigh (Gainsborough), Ian Levy (Blyth Valley), Andrew Lewer (Northampton South), Brandon Lewis (Great Yarmouth), Julian Lewis (New Forest East), Ian Liddell-Grainger (Bridgwater and West Somerset), Chris Loder (West Dorset), Mark Logan (Bolton North East), Marco Longhi (Dudley North), Julia Lopez (Hornchurch and Upminster), Jack Lopresti (Filton and Bradley Stoke), Jonathan Lord (Woking), Tim Loughton (East Worthing and Shoreham), Craig Mackinlay (South Thanet), Cherilyn Mackrory (Truro and Falmouth), Rachel Maclean (Redditch), Alan Mak (Havant), Kit Malthouse (North West Hampshire), Anthony Mangnall (Totnes), Scott Mann (North Cornwall), Julie Marson (Hertford and Stortford), Theresa May (Maidenhead), Jerome Mayhew (Broadland), Paul Maynard (Blackpool North and Cleveleys), Jason McCartney (Colne Valley), Karl McCartney (Lincoln), Stephen McPartland (Stevenage), Esther McVey (Tatton), Mark Menzies (Fylde), Johnny Mercer (Plymouth, Moor View), Huw Merriman (Bexhill and Battle), Stephen Metcalfe (South Basildon and East Thurrock), Robin Millar (Aberconwy), Maria Miller (Basingstoke), Amanda Milling (Cannock Chase), Nigel Mills (Amber Valley), Andrew Mitchell (Sutton Coldfield), Gagan Mohindra (South West Hertfordshire), Damien Moore (Southport), Robbie Moore (Keighley), Penny Mordaunt (Portsmouth North), Anne Marie Morris (Newton Abbot), David Morris (Morecambe and Lunesdale), Joy Morrissey (Beaconsfield), Wendy Morton (Aldridge-Brownhills), Kieran Mullan (Crewe and Nantwich), Holly Mumby-Croft (Scunthorpe), David Mundell (Dumfriesshire, Clydesdale and Tweeddale), Sheryll Murray (South East Cornwall), Andrew Murrison (South West Wiltshire), Robert Neill (Bromley and Chislehurst), Lia Nici (Great Grimsby), Caroline Nokes (Romsey and Southampton North), Jesse Norman (Hereford and South Herefordshire), Neil O’Brien (Harborough), Matthew Offord (Hendon), Guy Opperman (Hexham), Neil Parish (Tiverton and Honiton), Priti Patel (Witham), Mark Pawsey (Rugby), Mike Penning (Hemel Hempstead), John Penrose (Weston-super-Mare), Andrew Percy (Brigg and Goole), Chris Philp (Croydon South), Christopher Pincher (Tamworth), Dan Poulter (Central Suffolk and North Ipswich), Rebecca Pow (Taunton Deane), Victoria Prentis (Banbury), Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin), Tom Pursglove (Corby), Jeremy Quin (Horsham), Will Quince (Colchester), Dominic Raab (Esher and Walton), Tom Randall (Gedling), Jacob Rees-Mogg (North East Somerset), Nicola Richards (West Bromwich East), Angela Richardson (Guildford), Rob Roberts (Delyn), Laurence Robertson (Tewkesbury), Mary Robinson (Cheadle), Andrew Rosindell (Romford), Douglas Ross (Moray), Lee Rowley (North East Derbyshire), Dean Russell (Watford), David Rutley (Macclesfield), Gary Sambrook (Birmingham, Northfield), Selaine Saxby (North Devon), Paul Scully (Sutton and Cheam), Bob Seely (Isle of Wight), Andrew Selous (South West Bedfordshire), Grant Shapps (Welwyn Hatfield), Alok Sharma (Reading West), Alec Shelbrooke (Elmet and Rothwell), David Simmonds (Ruislip, Northwood and Pinner), Chris Skidmore (Kingswood), Chloe Smith (Norwich North), Greg Smith (Buckingham), Henry Smith (Crawley), Julian Smith (Skipton and Ripon), Royston Smith (Southampton, Itchen), Amanda Solloway (Derby North), Ben Spencer (Runnymede and Weybridge), Alexander Stafford (Rother Valley), Andrew Stephenson (Pendle), Jane Stevenson (Wolverhampton North East), John Stevenson (Carlisle), Bob Stewart (Beckenham), Iain Stewart (Milton Keynes South), Gary Streeter (South West Devon), Mel Stride (Central Devon), Graham Stuart (Beverley and Holderness), Julian Sturdy (York Outer), Rishi Sunak (Richmond (Yorks)), James Sunderland (Bracknell), Desmond Swayne (New Forest West), Robert Syms (Poole), Derek Thomas (St Ives), Maggie Throup (Erewash), Edward Timpson (Eddisbury), Kelly Tolhurst (Rochester and Strood), Justin Tomlinson (North Swindon), Michael Tomlinson (Mid Dorset and North Poole), Craig Tracey (North Warwickshire), Anne-Marie Trevelyan (Berwick-upon-Tweed), Laura Trott (Sevenoaks), Elizabeth Truss (South West Norfolk), Tom Tugendhat (Tonbridge and Malling), Shailesh Vara (North West Cambridgeshire), Martin Vickers (Cleethorpes), Matt Vickers (Stockton South), Theresa Villiers (Chipping Barnet), Christian Wakeford (Bury South), Robin Walker (Worcester), Charles Walker (Broxbourne), Ben Wallace (Wyre and Preston North), Jamie Wallis (Bridgend), David Warburton (Somerton and Frome), Matt Warman (Boston and Skegness), Giles Watling (Clacton), Suzanne Webb (Stourbridge), Helen Whately (Faversham and Mid Kent), Heather Wheeler (South Derbyshire), Craig Whittaker (Calder Valley), John Whittingdale (Maldon), Bill Wiggin (North Herefordshire), James Wild (North West Norfolk), Craig Williams (Montgomeryshire), Gavin Williamson (South Staffordshire), Mike Wood (Dudley South), William Wragg (Hazel Grove), Jeremy Wright (Kenilworth and Southam), Jacob Young (Redcar), Nadhim Zahawi (Stratford-on-Avon).
162 Labour MPs: Debbie Abrahams (Oldham East and Saddleworth), Rushanara Ali (Bethnal Green and Bow), Tahir Ali (Birmingham, Hall Green), Rosena Allin-Khan (Tooting), Mike Amesbury (Weaver Vale), Fleur Anderson (Putney), Jonathan Ashworth (Leicester South), Paula Barker (Liverpool, Wavertree), Margaret Beckett (Derby South), Hilary Benn (Leeds Central), Clive Betts (Sheffield South East), Paul Blomfield (Sheffield Central), Tracy Brabin (Batley and Spen), Nicholas Brown (Newcastle upon Tyne East), Lyn Brown (West Ham), Chris Bryant (Rhondda), Karen Buck (Westminster North), Ian Byrne (Liverpool, West Derby), Liam Byrne (Birmingham, Hodge Hill), Ruth Cadbury (Brentford and Isleworth), Alan Campbell (Tynemouth), Dan Carden (Liverpool, Walton), Sarah Champion (Rotherham), Bambos Charalambous (Enfield, Southgate), Feryal Clark (Enfield North), Rosie Cooper (West Lancashire), Yvette Cooper (Normanton, Pontefract and Castleford), Jon Cruddas (Dagenham and Rainham), John Cryer (Leyton and Wanstead), Judith Cummins (Bradford South), Alex Cunningham (Stockton North), Wayne David (Caerphilly), Alex Davies-Jones (Pontypridd), Marsha De Cordova (Battersea), Thangam Debbonaire (Bristol West), Tanmanjeet Singh Dhesi (Slough), Anneliese Dodds (Oxford East), Stephen Doughty (Cardiff South and Penarth), Jack Dromey (Birmingham, Erdington), Maria Eagle (Garston and Halewood), Angela Eagle (Wallasey), Julie Elliott (Sunderland Central), Chris Elmore (Ogmore), Bill Esterson (Sefton Central), Chris Evans (Islwyn), Colleen Fletcher (Coventry North East), Yvonne Fovargue (Makerfield), Vicky Foxcroft (Lewisham, Deptford), Gill Furniss (Sheffield, Brightside and Hillsborough), Preet Kaur Gill (Birmingham, Edgbaston), Mary Glindon (North Tyneside), Kate Green (Stretford and Urmston), Lilian Greenwood (Nottingham South), Margaret Greenwood (Wirral West), Nia Griffith (Llanelli), Andrew Gwynne (Denton and Reddish), Louise Haigh (Sheffield, Heeley), Fabian Hamilton (Leeds North East), Emma Hardy (Kingston upon Hull West and Hessle), Harriet Harman (Camberwell and Peckham), Carolyn Harris (Swansea East), John Healey (Wentworth and Dearne), Mark Hendrick (Preston), Mike Hill (Hartlepool), Margaret Hodge (Barking), Sharon Hodgson (Washington and Sunderland West), Kate Hollern (Blackburn), Rachel Hopkins (Luton South), George Howarth (Knowsley), Imran Hussain (Bradford East), Dan Jarvis (Barnsley Central), Kim Johnson (Liverpool, Riverside), Gerald Jones (Merthyr Tydfil and Rhymney), Kevan Jones (North Durham), Ruth Jones (Newport West), Sarah Jones (Croydon Central), Mike Kane (Wythenshawe and Sale East), Barbara Keeley (Worsley and Eccles South), Liz Kendall (Leicester West), Afzal Khan (Manchester, Gorton), Stephen Kinnock (Aberavon), Peter Kyle (Hove), David Lammy (Tottenham), Ian Lavery (Wansbeck), Emma Lewell-Buck (South Shields), Tony Lloyd (Rochdale), Holly Lynch (Halifax), Justin Madders (Ellesmere Port and Neston), Khalid Mahmood (Birmingham, Perry Barr), Shabana Mahmood (Birmingham, Ladywood), Seema Malhotra (Feltham and Heston), Rachael Maskell (York Central), Christian Matheson (City of Chester), Steve McCabe (Birmingham, Selly Oak), Kerry McCarthy (Bristol East), Andy McDonald (Middlesbrough), Pat McFadden (Wolverhampton South East), Conor McGinn (St Helens North), Alison McGovern (Wirral South), Jim McMahon (Oldham West and Royton), Anna McMorrin (Cardiff North), Edward Miliband (Doncaster North), Navendu Mishra (Stockport), Jessica Morden (Newport East), Stephen Morgan (Portsmouth South), Grahame Morris (Easington), Ian Murray (Edinburgh South), James Murray (Ealing North), Lisa Nandy (Wigan), Charlotte Nichols (Warrington North), Alex Norris (Nottingham North), Chi Onwurah (Newcastle upon Tyne Central), Abena Oppong-Asare (Erith and Thamesmead), Kate Osborne (Jarrow), Taiwo Owatemi (Coventry North West), Sarah Owen (Luton North), Stephanie Peacock (Barnsley East), Matthew Pennycook (Greenwich and Woolwich), Toby Perkins (Chesterfield), Jess Phillips (Birmingham, Yardley), Bridget Phillipson (Houghton and Sunderland South), Luke Pollard (Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport), Lucy Powell (Manchester Central), Yasmin Qureshi (Bolton South East), Angela Rayner (Ashton-under-Lyne), Steve Reed (Croydon North), Christina Rees (Neath), Ellie Reeves (Lewisham West and Penge), Rachel Reeves (Leeds West), Jonathan Reynolds (Stalybridge and Hyde), Marie Rimmer (St Helens South and Whiston), Matt Rodda (Reading East), Naz Shah (Bradford West), Virendra Sharma (Ealing, Southall), Barry Sheerman (Huddersfield), Tulip Siddiq (Hampstead and Kilburn), Cat Smith (Lancaster and Fleetwood), Jeff Smith (Manchester, Withington), Nick Smith (Blaenau Gwent), Karin Smyth (Bristol South), Alex Sobel (Leeds North West), John Spellar (Warley), Keir Starmer (Holborn and St Pancras), Jo Stevens (Cardiff Central), Wes Streeting (Ilford North), Graham Stringer (Blackley and Broughton), Mark Tami (Alyn and Deeside), Sam Tarry (Ilford South), Gareth Thomas (Harrow West), Nick Thomas-Symonds (Torfaen), Emily Thornberry (Islington South and Finsbury), Stephen Timms (East Ham), Jon Trickett (Hemsworth), Karl Turner (Kingston upon Hull East), Derek Twigg (Halton), Liz Twist (Blaydon), Valerie Vaz (Walsall South), Catherine West (Hornsey and Wood Green), Matt Western (Warwick and Leamington), Alan Whitehead (Southampton, Test), Mick Whitley (Birkenhead), Daniel Zeichner (Cambridge).
Tellers for the ayes were Conservative MPs Mark Spencer (Sherwood) and James Morris (Halesowen and Rowley Regis).
One Labour MP: Bell Ribeiro-Addy (Streatham).
44 Scottish National Party MPs: Hannah Bardell (Livingston), Mhairi Black (Paisley and Renfrewshire South), Ian Blackford (Ross, Skye and Lochaber), Kirsty Blackman (Aberdeen North), Steven Bonnar (Coatbridge, Chryston and Bellshill), Deidre Brock (Edinburgh North and Leith), Alan Brown (Kilmarnock and Loudoun), Amy Callaghan (East Dunbartonshire), Lisa Cameron (East Kilbride, Strathaven and Lesmahagow), Douglas Chapman (Dunfermline and West Fife), Joanna Cherry (Edinburgh South West), Ronnie Cowan (Inverclyde), Angela Crawley (Lanark and Hamilton East), Martyn Day (Linlithgow and East Falkirk), Martin Docherty-Hughes (West Dunbartonshire), Dave Doogan (Angus), Allan Dorans (Ayr, Carrick and Cumnock), Marion Fellows (Motherwell and Wishaw), Stephen Flynn (Aberdeen South), Patricia Gibson (North Ayrshire and Arran), Patrick Grady (Glasgow North), Peter Grant (Glenrothes), Neil Gray (Airdrie and Shotts), Neale Hanvey (Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath), Stewart Hosie (Dundee East), Chris Law (Dundee West), Kenny MacAskill (East Lothian), Angus Brendan MacNeil (Na h-Eileanan an Iar), Stewart Malcolm McDonald (Glasgow South), Stuart C McDonald (Cumbernauld, Kilsyth and Kirkintilloch East), Anne McLaughlin (Glasgow North East), John McNally (Falkirk), Carol Monaghan (Glasgow North West), Gavin Newlands (Paisley and Renfrewshire North), John Nicolson (Ochil and South Perthshire), Brendan O’Hara (Argyll and Bute), Kirsten Oswald (East Renfrewshire), Tommy Sheppard (Edinburgh East), Alyn Smith (Stirling), Chris Stephens (Glasgow South West), Alison Thewliss (Glasgow Central), Richard Thomson (Gordon), Philippa Whitford (Central Ayrshire), Pete Wishart (Perth and North Perthshire).
11 Liberal Democrat MPs: Alistair Carmichael (Orkney and Shetland), Wendy Chamberlain (North East Fife), Daisy Cooper (St Albans), Ed Davey (Kingston and Surbiton), Tim Farron (Westmorland and Lonsdale), Wera Hobhouse (Bath), Christine Jardine (Edinburgh West), Layla Moran (Oxford West and Abingdon), Sarah Olney (Richmond Park), Jamie Stone (Caithness, Sutherland and Easter Ross), Munira Wilson (Twickenham).
Eight Democratic Unionist Party MPs: Gregory Campbell (East Londonderry), Jeffrey M Donaldson (Lagan Valley), Paul Girvan (South Antrim), Carla Lockhart (Upper Bann), Ian Paisley (North Antrim), Gavin Robinson (Belfast East), Jim Shannon (Strangford), Sammy Wilson (East Antrim).
Three Plaid Cymru MPs: Ben Lake (Ceredigion), Liz Saville Roberts (Dwyfor Meirionnydd), Hywel Williams (Arfon).
Two SDLP MPs: Colum Eastwood (Foyle), Claire Hanna (Belfast South).
One Green Party MP: Caroline Lucas (Brighton, Pavilion).
One Alliance MP: Stephen Farry (North Down).
Two Independent MPs: Jonathan Edwards (Carmarthen East and Dinefwr), Margaret Ferrier (Rutherglen and Hamilton West).
Tellers for the noes were: SNP MPs David Linden (Glasgow East) and Owen Thompson (Midlothian).
– No vote recorded (this does not automatically equate to an abstention but in many cases will be)
Two Conservative MPs: Owen Paterson (North Shropshire), John Redwood (Wokingham).
36 Labour MPs: Diane Abbott (Hackney North and Stoke Newington), Tonia Antoniazzi (Gower), Apsana Begum (Poplar and Limehouse), Olivia Blake (Sheffield, Hallam), Ben Bradshaw (Exeter), Kevin Brennan (Cardiff West), Richard Burgon (Leeds East), Dawn Butler (Brent Central), Neil Coyle (Bermondsey and Old Southwark), Stella Creasy (Walthamstow), Janet Daby (Lewisham East), Geraint Davies (Swansea West), Peter Dowd (Bootle), Rosie Duffield (Canterbury), Clive Efford (Eltham), Florence Eshalomi (Vauxhall), Mary Kelly Foy (City of Durham), Barry Gardiner (Brent North), Helen Hayes (Dulwich and West Norwood), Meg Hillier (Hackney South and Shoreditch), Rupa Huq (Ealing Central and Acton), Diana Johnson (Kingston upon Hull North), Darren Jones (Bristol North West), Clive Lewis (Norwich South), Rebecca Long Bailey (Salford and Eccles), Siobhain McDonagh (Mitcham and Morden), John McDonnell (Hayes and Harlington), Catherine McKinnell (Newcastle upon Tyne North), Ian Mearns (Gateshead), Kate Osamor (Edmonton), Lloyd Russell-Moyle (Brighton, Kemptown), Andy Slaughter (Hammersmith), Zarah Sultana (Coventry South), Nadia Whittome (Nottingham East), Beth Winter (Cynon Valley), Mohammad Yasin (Bedford).
Two Independent MPs: Jeremy Corbyn (Islington North), Claudia Webbe (Leicester East).
DOWN TO THE WIRE: TIMELINE OF THE BREXIT SAGA
January 23, 2013 – Under intense pressure from many of his own MPs and with the rise of Ukip, prime minister David Cameron promises an in-out referendum on EU membership if the Conservatives win the 2015 general election.
May 7, 2015 – The Tories unexpectedly make sweeping gains over Ed Miliband’s Labour Party and secure a majority in the Commons. Mr Cameron vows to deliver his manifesto pledge of an EU referendum.
June 23, 2016 – The UK votes to leave the EU in a shock result that sees 52% of the public support Brexit and Mr Cameron quickly resigns as prime minister.
July 13, 2016 – Theresa May takes over as prime minister. Despite having backed Remain, she promises to ‘rise to the challenge’ of negotiating the UK’s exit.
November 10, 2016 – The High Court rules against the Government and says Parliament must hold a vote to trigger Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, the mechanism that begins the exit from the EU. Mrs May says the ruling will not stop her from invoking the legislation by April 2017.
March 29, 2017 – Mrs May triggers Article 50. European Council president Donald Tusk says it is not a happy occasion, telling a Brussels press conference his message to the UK is: ‘We already miss you. Thank you and goodbye.’
April 18, 2017 – Mrs May announces a snap general election to be held on June 8.
June 8, 2017 – There is humiliation for Mrs May as she loses her Commons majority after her election gamble backfires. She becomes head of a minority Conservative administration propped up by the Democratic Unionist Party.
September 22, 2017 – In a crucial Brexit speech in Florence, Mrs May sends a message to EU leaders by saying: ‘We want to be your strongest friend and partner as the EU and UK thrive side by side.’ She says she is proposing an ‘implementation period’ of ‘around two years’ after Brexit when existing market access arrangements will apply.
March 19, 2018 – The EU’s chief negotiator, Michel Barnier, says he and Brexit secretary David Davis have taken a ‘decisive step’ towards agreeing a joint legal text on the UK’s EU withdrawal but warns there are still outstanding issues relating to the Irish border.
July 6, 2018 – A crunch Cabinet meeting at Chequers agrees Mrs May’s new Brexit plans, including the creation of a new UK-EU free trade area for goods. But not all who attend are happy with the compromises.
July 8 and July 9, 2018 – Mr Davis resigns from the Government in protest while the following day Boris Johnson quits as foreign secretary, claiming the plans mean ‘we are truly headed for the status of colony’ of the EU.
November 14, 2018 – In a statement outside 10 Downing Street after a five-hour Cabinet meeting, Mrs May says that Cabinet has agreed the draft Brexit Withdrawal Agreement.
November 15, 2018 – Dominic Raab resigns as Brexit secretary, saying he ‘cannot in good conscience support the terms proposed for our deal with the EU’. Other resignations follow.
November 25, 2018 – The 27 EU leaders endorse the Brexit deal.
December 12, 2018 – Mrs May survives an attempt to oust her with a vote of no confidence as Tory MPs vote by 200 to 117 in the secret ballot in Westminster.
January 15, 2019 – MPs reject Mrs May’s Brexit plans by an emphatic 432 to 202 in an historic vote which throws the future of her administration and the nature of the UK’s EU withdrawal into doubt.
March 20, 2019 – Mrs May tells the House of Commons that she has written to Mr Tusk to request an extension to Article 50 Brexit negotiations to June 30.
March 29, 2019 – MPs reject Mrs May’s Withdrawal Agreement for a third time – by 286 votes to 344 – on the day the UK was due to leave the EU.
April 10, 2019 – The EU agrees a ‘flexible extension’ to Brexit until October 31. Mrs May says the ‘choices we now face are stark and the timetable is clear’.
May 23, 2019 – Nigel Farage’s Brexit Party comes out on top in the European elections, while the pro-EU Liberal Democrats also make gains.
May 24, 2019 – Mrs May announces she is standing down as Tory Party leader on June 7. She says: ‘It is and will always remain a matter of deep regret to me that I have not been able to deliver Brexit.’
July 23, 2019 – Mr Johnson is elected as leader of the Conservative Party and becomes the UK’s new Prime Minister after defeating Jeremy Hunt.
August 20, 2019 – The new Prime Minister is rebuffed by European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker after demanding major changes to Irish border arrangements in a new Brexit deal.
August 28, 2019 – The Queen is dragged into the Brexit row as Mr Johnson requests the prorogation of Parliament from early September to mid-October.
September 4, 2019 – MPs vote to approve legislation aimed at preventing a no-deal Brexit. Mr Johnson orders a purge of rebel Tories who opposed the Government including former chancellors Philip Hammond and Sir Kenneth Clarke.
The Prime Minister attempts to trigger an early general election but fails to get the required support of two-thirds of MPs.
September 24, 2019 – The Supreme Court rules that the PM’s advice to the Queen to suspend Parliament until October 14 was unlawful because it had the effect of frustrating Parliament.
October 2, 2019 – Mr Johnson puts forward his formal Brexit plan to the EU, revealing his blueprint to solve the Irish border issue.
October 10, 2019 – Mr Johnson and Taoiseach Leo Varadkar say they can see a ‘pathway to a deal’, in a joint statement after key talks at a luxury hotel in Cheshire.
October 17, 2019 – After intense negotiations, the Prime Minister announces the UK has reached a ‘great deal’ with the EU which ‘takes back control’ and means that ‘the UK can come out of the EU as one United Kingdom – England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, together’.
October 19, 2019 – In the first Saturday sitting of the Commons in 37 years Mr Johnson seeks the support of MPs in a ‘meaningful vote’ on his new deal but instead they back an amendment forcing him to seek a delay.
October 22, 2019 – The Prime Minister mounts an attempt to fast-track his Brexit deal through Parliament but puts the plans on ice after MPs vote against his foreshortened timetable.
October 28, 2019 – EU leaders agree to a second Brexit ‘flextension’ until January 31 unless Parliament ratifies the deal sooner.
October 29, 2019 – Mr Johnson finally succeeds at the fourth attempt in winning Commons support for a general election on December 12.
December 12, 2019 – Having campaigned on a promise to ‘get Brexit done’, Mr Johnson secures a landslide win at the election and with an 80-seat majority.
January 8, 2020 – New European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen visits No 10 to warn Mr Johnson the timetable for a post-Brexit trade deal is ‘very, very tight’. The Prime Minister is clear however there will be no extension to the transition period, which expires at the end of 2020.
January 9, 2020 – Mr Johnson gets his Brexit deal through the Commons as the European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Bill is given a third reading with a majority of 99.
January 31, 2020 – A clock projected on the walls of Downing Street counts down the moments to the UK’s departure from the EU at 11pm.
March 2, 2020 – Mr Barnier and Mr Johnson’s chief EU adviser David Frost open formal talks in Brussels on Britain’s future relationship with the bloc, including a free trade agreement.
March 12, 2020 – The two sides announce they are suspending face-to-face talks due to the coronavirus pandemic and will explore the options for continuing the negotiations by video conferencing.
June 12, 2020 – Cabinet office minister Michael Gove formally tells the EU the UK will not sign up to an extension to the transition period, but he backtracks on plans to immediately introduce full border checks with the bloc on January 1.
September 10, 2020 – The European Commission threatens the UK with legal action after ministers announce plans for legislation enabling them to override provisions in the Withdrawal Agreement relating to Northern Ireland in breach of international law.
October 16, 2020 – Mr Johnson says he is halting talks on a trade deal accusing EU leaders meeting for a summit in Brussels of seeking to impose ‘unacceptable’ demands.
November 7, 2020 – Mr Johnson and Mrs von der Leyen agree to ‘redouble’ their efforts to get a deal while acknowledging that significant differences remain over fisheries and the so-called ‘level playing field’ for state aid rules.
December 4, 2020 – Lord Frost and Mr Barnier announce in a joint statement the conditions for an agreement had still not been met and negotiations will be put on ‘pause’ to allow political leaders to take stock, with Mr Johnson and Mrs Von der Leyen to engage in emergency talks.
December 7, 2020 – In a key move to ease tensions, Cabinet Office minister Michael Gove and EU counterpart Maroš Šefčovič settle the row over the Withdrawal Agreement, meaning planned clauses that would have overridden the divorce terms are dropped.
December 9, 2020 – Mr Johnson and Mrs Von der Leyen dine at the European Commission, with talks between the two leaders lasting around three hours.
They warned ‘very large gaps’ remain, but authorised further discussions between the negotiating teams, with a ‘firm decision’ due on Sunday.
December 10, 2020 – Ms von der Leyen pushes the button on the EU’s No Deal contingency plans. Mr Johnson warns No Deal is now a strong possibility.
December 11, 2020 – Mr Johnson says No Deal is ‘very very likely’ and the most probably outcome from the standoff.
December 16, 2020 – At the last PMQs of the year, Mr Johnson insists the UK will ‘prosper mightily’ whatever the result of the talks.
December 17, 2020 – MPs are sent home for Christmas with a warning that they will be recalled if a Brexit deal needs to be passed into law before January 1.
December 19, 2020 – Mr Johnson announces that a mutant version of coronavirus has been identified in the UK. A host of countries impose travel restrictions, with France saying no freight will be allowed in for 48 hours. It sparks fears over supermarket shortages, although Brexiteers complain it is partly strong arm tactics in the negotiations.
Christmas Eve, 2020 – a Brexit deal is finally sealed between the two sides, with Mr Johnson insisting it ‘takes back control’ and Ms von der Leyen saying it is ‘fair’.
December 30, 2020 – MPs and Peers are set to pass the legislation underpinning the agreement
11pm December 31, 2020 – The Brexit transition period will end and the UK will be under new trade – or WTO – terms.